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Targeting social isolation has become a focus area for policy and practice. Evidence indicates that contemporary information and communication technologies ICT have the potential to prevent or reduce the social isolation of elderly people via various mechanisms. Objective This systematic review explored the effects of ICT interventions on reducing social isolation of the elderly.
Narrative synthesis was performed to interpret the results of the identified studies, and their quality was also appraised. Results Twenty-five publications were included in the review. Four of them were evaluated as rigorous research. Most studies measured the effectiveness of ICT by measuring specific dimensions rather than social isolation in general.
ICT use was consistently found to affect social support, social connectedness, and social isolation in general positively. The results for loneliness were inconclusive. Even though most were positive, some studies found a nonsignificant or negative impact. More importantly, the positive effect of ICT use on social connectedness and social support seemed to be short-term and did not last for more than six months after the intervention.
Conclusions More well-designed studies that contain a minimum risk of research bias are needed to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of ICT interventions for elderly people in reducing their perceived social isolation as a multidimensional concept. The results of this review suggest that ICT could be an effective tool to tackle social isolation among the elderly. Look at Figure 1. The amount of military goods given up in a year is the opportunity cost for increasing the production of civilian goods, and vice versa.
In the United States, Congress and the president decide where on this curve the nation will be in terms of production of each type of good. The government collects revenue from citizens through taxes, and then it must decide how to use the revenue to best serve the nation. A production possibilities curve is useful in determining what the opportunity cost will be if a particular course of action is taken.
In other words, the cost of having some civilian goods represented by the horizontal distance from point y to point z is giving up some military goods represented by the vertical distance from point A to point x. In the real world, it takes time to move from point A to point B on the curve.
Also, in terms of nations, leaders must take factors other than economics into consideration when allocating resources; they also look at the political and social concerns of citizens.
The important point to remember is that a production possibilities curve can help nations, businesses, and individuals decide how best to use their resources. Examining What is the classic example economists often use to explain production possibilities in economics? Vocabulary 1. Explain the significance of: trade-off, opportunity cost, production possibilities curve.
Explaining What is the opportunity cost of any trade-off? Determining Cause and Effect Individuals, families, and businesses make trade-offs.
Create a chart like the one below, and for each example given, add a likely opportunity cost. Knowing about opportunity costs, what question should you ask as a citizen? Analyzing Imagine that an independent supermarket owner decides to expand and builds another store in a neighboring town.
However, it is now difficult to supervise employees in both stores. Economists might analyze how the super-rich spend their income, for example, and the effect this spending has on the economy. Benefits Drawbacks 1.
The size of the typical new house has more than doubled. That money never satisfies, [though,] is suggested by this telling fact: polls show that Americans believe that, whatever their income level, they need more to live well. Even those making large sums said still larger sums were required. We seem conditioned to think we do not have enough, even if.
On what information did you base your prediction? Read on to learn how economists use models to help them explain and predict economic behavior. Remember that economics is concerned with the ways individuals, businesses, and nations choose to use their limited resources. To economists, the word economy means all the activity in a nation that together affects the production, distribution, and use of goods and services.
When economists study specific parts of the economy—teenage employment rates or spending habits, for example—they often formulate theories and gather data from the real world. The theories that economists use in their work are called economic models. The study of these models can help explain and predict economic behavior.
You may be familiar with other types of models, such as model trains or airplanes, or models of buildings that architects have designed. Like these other types of models, economic models are simplified representations of the real world.
Economists test these economic models, and the solutions that result from these tests often become the basis for actual decisions by private businesses or government agencies. Keep in mind, though, that no economic model records every detail and relationship that exists about a problem to be studied.
A model will show only the basic factors needed to analyze the problem. TimFuller 22 Chapter 1 What Models Show Physicists, chemists, biologists, and other scientists use models to understand in simple terms the complex workings of the world. One purpose of economic models is to show visual representations of consumer, business, or other economic behavior.
Economic models all relate to the way individuals as consumers and businesspeople react to changes in the world around them. The most common economic model is a line graph explaining how consumers react to changes in the prices of goods and services.
Economic models assume that some factors remain constant. In studying the production possibilities curve for making jewelry in Section 2, for example, we assumed that the price of inputs beads, wire, and so on would not increase.
We also assumed that inclement weather would not close schools for a day, which would have enabled you to work more than 20 hours a week on jewelry. Why are these constant-factor assumptions important? Economists realize that, in the real world, several things may be changing at once.
Using a model holds everything steady except the variables assumed to be related. In the same way that a map does not show every alley and building in a given location, economic models do not record every detail and relationship that exists about a problem to be studied. A model will show only the basic factors needed to analyze the problem at hand.
Creating a Model Models are useful if they help us analyze the way the real world works. An economist begins with some idea about the way things work, then collects facts and discards those that are not relevant. Perhaps this unemployment occurs when the federal minimum wage goes up, thereby forcing employers to pay their teenage workers more or to lay some workers off.
The economist can test this theory, or model, in the same way that other scientists test a hypothesis—an educated guess or prediction. Testing a Model Testing a model, or hypothesis, allows economists to see if the model does a good job of representing reality. Suppose an economist has developed the model shown in Graph A of Figure 1. The economist would collect data on the amount of teenage unemployment every year for the last 30 years. He or she would also gather 30 years of information on federal legislation that increased the legal minimum wage paid to teenagers.
GettyImages What Is Economics? But suppose that the data instead resulted in Graph B of Figure 1. In that case, the economist would have to develop another model to explain changes in teenage unemployment.
Applying Models to Real Life Much of the work of economists involves attempts at predicting how people will react in a particular situation. Consider, for example, that some economists believe that to stimulate the economy, taxes should be cut and government spending increased.
Describing What is an economic model? Graph A This graph supports the theory that a direct relationship exists between increases in the minimum wage rate and increases in teenage unemployment. Graph B This graph does not support the theory that a direct relationship exists between the two factors studied.
Economic models, however, must be tested to see if they are useful. Schools of Economic Thought Competing economic theories are supported by economists from different schools of thought. Read on to learn about how economists disagree about economic theories. Economists deal with facts. Their personal opinions and beliefs may nonetheless influence how they view those facts and fit them to theories. The government under which an economist lives also shapes how he or she views the world.
As a result, not all economists will agree that a particular theory offers the best prediction. Later, other leaders may agree with another group of economists. Other influential economists have proposed that the federal government should intervene in the economy to reduce unemployment and prevent inflation.
The two major parties in the United States, Democrats and Republicans, reflect this concept. Republicans Republicans, like George W. Bush, tend to think that free markets will take care of themselves and that government intervention in the workings of the market should be minimal. Economics will not tell you, however, whether the results will be good or bad.
Values are the beliefs or characteristics that a person or group considers important, such as religious freedom, equal opportunity, individual initiative, freedom from government meddling, and so on. Even having the same values, however, does not mean that people will agree about strategies, interpretation of data, or solutions to problems. For example, those in favor of decreasing teenage unemployment in order to bring about economic opportunity may disagree about the best way to solve this problem.
If you were a legislator, you might show your commitment to this value by introducing a bill to decrease teenage unemployment. The economists who help you research the causes of teenage unemployment will tell you, based on their expertise, whether they think the proposed solution will actually reduce teenage unemployment.
Remember always that the science of economics is not used to judge whether a certain policy is good or bad. Economists only inform us as to likely outcomes of these policies.
Explaining What factors may cause economists to disagree about economic theory? Explain the significance of: economy, economic model, hypothesis.
Sequencing Create a diagram like the one below to show how economists use models to study the real world. Idea Test hypothesis Critical Thinking 3. Assume, however, that scarcity did not exist. How would your life be different? Explaining Give an explanation about why models can never be completely realistic. Examining Which of the statements below would be a valid hypothesis to research, according to what you learned in this section?
Explain why. Check It Out! In this chapter you learned about trade-offs. A huge trade-off you will make after high school is whether to begin working or to attend college. This article discusses a new college degree that may interest you. Students at Belmont Abbey College may have a head start in the race for postgraduation jobs—at least jobs that go vroom! Starting this fall, the 1,student school outside Charlotte, N. The idea originated with H. He saw a need to boost management talent in the booming race-car business.
Ladies and gentlemen, turn your tassels. Identifying What is the opportunity cost of earning a Motorsports Management degree? Consumers seek a balance between satisfying their needs and wants and allocating their time and income. Whenever you make an economic choice, you are sacrificing other goods or services that you may have downloadd with your limited resources.
Study anywhere, anytime! Download quizzes and flash cards to your PDA from glencoe. Write a paragraph explaining how this business would use the factors of production. Use all of the following terms. Thinking of the same business, now write a short paragraph about how an economist might use economic models to help the business owner make decisions about trade-offs and opportunity costs. Review Academic Vocabulary Choose the letter of the term that best completes each sentence.
An economist might use an economic model to how new technology might affect productivity in a particular industry. The opportunity cost of a trade-off is the value of the next best that had to be given up. Some economic choices are simple or easy, while others are. By making choices about what to download, consumers what they value most. Studying how people use limited resources to fulfill their unlimited wants is the of economics.
An economist might use an economic model to formulate a , or hypothesis, about some aspect of the economy. Different societies might the same resource in different ways. Review the Main Ideas Section 1 pp. What is the difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics? How does scarcity differ from a shortage?
A want? Complete the chart below by listing the four factors of production and an example of each. Factors of Production Examples Section 2 pp.
What does making a trade-off require you to do? If a person chooses to download a pair of shoes instead of a new jacket, what does the jacket represent in economic terms? What does a production possibilities curve show?
Section 3 pp. For what purposes do economists use realworld data in building models? What do economists and other scientists call the educated guesses that they make and test? When does an economist consider an economic model useful? Study the cartoon on the right, and then answer the following questions. Who are the two men in the cartoon, and what transaction are they discussing? Why would the car pictured be exceptionally fuel efficient?
What is the trade-off to which the man on the left is referring? Refer to this production possibilities curve to answer the following questions. What is the opportunity cost of making 7 bookshelves with the time and wood available? What must happen in order to move from point B to point C? What would happen to the curve if the carpenter got sick for a couple of days or his wood supply was delivered a bit late?
Point E represents an impossible situation—the carpenter would not be able to produce 6 bookshelves and 4 tables. Critical Thinking They decide to ask an economist for advice about their options for turning the land into a money-making resource for the family.
What are some examples of the kinds of hypotheses the economist might offer the family? THE ISSUE Although some insurance companies have started to base their rates on the number of years of driving experience rather than age, on average, it still costs young men more to insure their cars than young women or other age groups.
A family that adds a teenage daughter to its insurance policy will pay about twice as much as before. If the same family adds a teenage son to the policy, the premiums may triple. Why do young men have to pay more for car insurance?
Before quoting a price for insuring your car, they consider the type of car, number of miles you drive per year, where you live, and who you are: age, gender, marital status, and driving record.
By comparing your profile to profiles of typical people who have been involved in crashes, they can estimate the likelihood of you having an accident that will cost them money. While less than 7 percent of drivers are under 25, they are involved in 25 percent of traffic accidents. For drivers age 16 to 19, the crash risk is four times higher than for older drivers. Men of all ages are involved in twice as many crashes as women, and fatal crashes are twice as common among teenage males as teenage females.
Check the chart below for more facts about young drivers. With our latest free hosting Cpanel you'll be able to configure and manage your websites without web hosting administration knowledge.
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